Waiting for someone else to speak out

first_img Lawrence D. Bobo dissects police killings of Black men and the history and cognitive forces behind racial bigotry and violence, and why he sees signs of hope Racism, coronavirus, and African Americans The fire this time Why America can’t escape its racist roots Related Orlando Patterson says there’s been progress, but the nation needs to reject white supremacist ideology, bigotry in policing, and segregation Since George Floyd died after police officer Derek Chauvin knelt on his neck for almost nine minutes on May 25, demonstrators across the country have gathered to protest police actions against African Americans. While most of the protests were calm, in several cities police officers  have used force against demonstrators and journalists under the justification of crowd control. The sight of officers in riot gear beating marchers, firing rubber bullets and chemical- or pepper-based irritants, and shoving activists has reignited questions about accepted practices in the nation’s law enforcement community.Francesca Gino, Tandon Family Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, studies leadership, the psychology of decision-making, and organizational behavior. She has written about how an organization can develop a culture that can turn harmful to its own people, to the success of its mission, and to its own reputation. In an interview, Gino discussed the circumstances surrounding Floyd’s killing, what they suggest about police culture in Minneapolis, and why it was unsurprising that the other officers on the scene didn’t stop Chauvin.Q&AFrancesca GinoGAZETTE:  When a police officer acts inappropriately, a common defense is that it’s “one bad apple,” not an entire department. What are the signs that it’s “one bad apple” in an organization, and when it’s something more systemic?GINO:  To me, the fact that no one reacted to the horrific situation, no one decided to help or stop Chauvin is a sign that the story is about more than one bad apple. It is difficult to make generalizations, but given how the other officers reacted, they clearly showed “bad apple” behavior as well.GAZETTE: Have you seen anything in the George Floyd incident to suggest there may be a toxic police culture at work?GINO:  Culture is a pattern of beliefs and expectations that organization members share and that produce norms that powerfully shape how people behave. Cultural norms are expectations about appropriate behaviors; they are socially created standards that help us interpret and evaluate behavior. Through their behavior, the officers on site demonstrated that inexcusable behaviors are tolerated — whether just by them or the police more generally is difficult to say. And that makes for a toxic culture. It is every organization member’s responsibility, in their own leadership and work, to cultivate an effective culture.“Why don’t people speak up more often when they see wrongdoing? One reason is the significant perceived risk of doing so,” said Harvard Business School Professor Francesca Gino. Jon Chase/Harvard file photoGAZETTE: One of the chilling aspects of this incident is that three police officers stood by casually or assisted Chauvin while he pinned Floyd down until he died. What is at work psychologically when otherwise responsible people do bad things or allow bad things to happen? Why don’t people speak up more often when they see wrongdoing?GINO:  One of the sad phenomena psychologists have studied for years now is the bystander effect. Basically, the research addresses the following question: Why is it that we look away even when atrocities are happening around us? One famous example that is often mentioned is the murder of a 28-year-old woman, Kitty Genovese, outside her apartment in the Queens neighborhood of Kew Gardens in the early morning of March 13, 1964. This case raised so many important questions: How could the neighbors look on and turn away as she was stabbed repeatedly on the street and in her apartment building? What did nobody act in a way that could be helpful? What did that collective inability to act reveal about us as human beings, our communities, and our belief systems?This is not a story in isolation. Though the details of every story are different, and each of them is quite tragic in its own way, they also point to the bystander effect: We continue to look away in the face of danger.The initial research was conducted by social psychologists John Darley and Bibb Latané. They wanted to show why the witnesses to Genovese’s murder, a case both followed avidly, behaved with such apathy, and whether they could quantify a minimum number of people present to create collective indecision. Their research found that the more people who witness a catastrophic event, the less likely any one person will do anything because each thinks someone else will take responsibility. Experiments that other researchers conducted in the years that followed suggest that in a crisis, pointing at a bystander and giving her directions to ask help or complete a task can override the robust bystander effect. Action over apathy is the greater struggle and more difficult choice, but it can prevail.This research, I think, gets to [this] question. The three officers who stood by as officer Derek Chauvin held down George Floyd until he died may have been bystanders. But it is also possible, even in a situation as tragic and horrific as this one, that the inexcusable and immoral behavior of Chauvin became contagious. As I found in my own research, the unethical behavior of a bad apple can, in fact, become contagious. In one study, for instance, we found that when a confederate (a student with acting skills we hired for the study) cheated ostentatiously by finishing a task impossibly quickly and leaving the room with the maximum reward, participants’ level of unethical behavior increased when the confederate was an in-group member (a student just like them), but decreased when the confederate was an out-group member.Why don’t people speak up more often when they see wrongdoing? There is a lot of research in management on why people do not speak up. One reason is the significant perceived risk of doing so. As I wrote recently, challenging the status quo threatens people’s status and relationships with supervisors and coworkers, research shows. Speaking up in organizations can also result in negative performance evaluation, undesirable job assignments, or even termination. Most people are aware of these potential costs; as a result, most stay quiet about bias, injustice, and mistreatment.GAZETTE: Who or what causes an organization’s culture to become toxic? Panel discusses long-festering wounds of racial inequities and possible steps forward GINO:  When there’s a toxic culture in an organization, every leader who contributed to using behaviors that are not consistent with the values the organization stands for is to blame. As I always say to executives when teaching about culture, culture is inevitable. A culture will form in any organization. The question is whether it is one that helps or hinders the leaders’ ability to execute their strategy, stay scrappy, and be successful over the long run, however they define success.GAZETTE: What harm does a toxic culture do?GINO:  Toxic cultures and workplaces, research finds, cause anxiety, stress, health problems, absenteeism, job burnout, counterproductive work behavior, and ultimately degrade productivity and increase turnover. For effective cultures to produce the effects they are intended to have, everyone has to uphold the culture even when it’s hard, it is not absolutely necessary, and no one is looking.GAZETTE: The Minneapolis police chief said he has been working to reform department culture, but has faced strong opposition from the police union. What can be done to root out a toxic culture once it has infiltrated an organization?GINO:  Cultural transformation is possible. It starts with leaders first acknowledging the issues that are present that need to disappear and define how they negatively impact the workplace, and then identifying values to live by and behaviors that are consistent with those values. But it takes discipline. Culture works when it is consistent, coherent, and comprehensive. It is key for leaders to be consistent in communicating and reinforcing the values, and to have a clear vision in everything they do. Those who are aligned will stay while those who are misaligned will filter themselves out or should in fact be fired. Leaders are the ones who set the example and the tone of the organization’s culture through what they allow and what they model. Their actions must match their message. The values and behaviors identified need to be coherent with the strategic goals the organizations have and they need to be comprehensive.This interview has been edited for clarity and length.last_img read more

SMC Pride Week hosts panel on LGBTQ issues

first_imgThe Saint Mary’s group Straight and Gay Alliance (SAGA) hosted a panel of professors to address LGBTQ current event policies and social justice issues as part of Pride Week on Tuesday in the College’s Student Center.Professor of history Patrick Pierce, professor of religious studies Stacy Davis and professor of psychology Catherine Pittman, discussed the difficulties the LGBTQ community may face and how there may be a variety of interpretations of issues and policies.Davis began the panel by presenting how some areas of the Bible are viewed based on the way individuals view the LGBTQ community.“There is no concept in the ancient world of sexual orientation,” Davis said.Davis interpreted different areas of biblical texts which are used to shape an opinion on sexual orientation, stating that the culmination of views is often “more based on tradition, not scripture.”Pierce then addressed how geographic religious views and generational gap differences can have an impact on policies of the LGBTQ community.Pierce noted how states have a variety of religious make-ups, including Fundamentalists and Evangelicals, and because of this, there are restrictive policies that are shaped around strict moral beliefs.“Legislatures at the state level are disproportionally white and … much more likely to be [composed of] males, which means that it is difficult to make the [LGBTQ] policies push forward,” Pierce said.Pierce finished by presenting how different tools, such as emotional responses, frame the LGBTQ issues by using symbols the community identifies with.“That matter of framing is really crucial, because if you can get control over the frame by which the issue is discussed, you can control the outcome,” Pierce said.Pittman concluded the presentation by pointing out the difficulties and circumstances of coming out for members of the LGBTQ community.Pittman explained how family could be a major influence on one’s decision to reveal their sexuality, as some families may struggle accepting transgender issues.Tags: LGBTQ, Pride, pride panel, saga, Smc pride week, straight and gay alliancelast_img read more

Another eye-watering sale notched on Gold Coast’s ‘Millionaires’ Row’

first_img mikaela.day@news.com.au A $4.725 million deal has been penned for 19 Hedges Ave, Mermaid Beach. There’s been another eye-watering multimillion-dollar sale for a beachfront house on the Coast’s illustrious ‘Millionaires’ Row’. The Mermaid Beach property, which was in need of an update, fetched a staggering $4.725 million last week. The three-level, five bedroom home on Hedges Ave was bought by a Gold Coast-based family seeking a slice of the high life. MORE NEWS: Gold Coast tenants forking out up to $4000 a week in rent Mermaid Beach is the Gold Coast’s priciest suburb. Mermaid Beach has a $1.385 million median house price making it the Glitter Strip’s priciest suburb, ­according to CoreLogic data. It is also one of Queensland’s top 10 most expensive suburbs to buy a house. “It’s such a testament to Mermaid Beach and the lifestyle it has to offer — board shorts and thongs, the ­relaxed lifestyle everyone seems to be attracted too,” Mr Stevens said. “Currently I have two to three high-net-worth individuals on my database who are waiting for me to find another beach house to purchase at Mermaid Beach.” CoreLogic data shows 19 Hedges Ave hit the market in November with a negotiable $5.595 million price tag. It last sold in June 2009 for $4.75 million. The sellers were a Brisbane couple who used it as a holiday home. Harcourts Coastal Broadbeach agent Tolemy Stevens said the buyers were looking forward to enjoying the relaxed beachfront lifestyle they have always wanted. “I’m led to believe they will be doing some sort of update and renovation to ensure it suits their family the best it can and to add a little bit of value to the property, which is always nice,” he said. More from news02:37International architect Desmond Brooks selling luxury beach villa11 hours ago02:37Gold Coast property: Sovereign Islands mega mansion hits market with $16m price tag2 days agoIt was in need of an update. Mr Stevens said the sale proved the appetite of buyers for prestige real estate had not wavered despite cooling conditions in property felt across the country. “It’s fantastic to see another robust sale on the beachfront of Hedges Ave, proving it is still one of the most sought-after streets in the country,” he said. “While the Sydney and Melbourne markets seem to be having their own ­challenges, we are seeing a lot of those high-net-worth ­individuals deciding to look at blue chip real estate on the Gold Coast, in particular Mermaid Beach, instead of choosing to reinvest in their own backyard. “The demand is still outweighing the supply for luxury beach houses on Hedges and Albatross avenues.” Video Player is loading.Play VideoPlayNext playlist itemMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:37Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:37 Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedCaptionscaptions settings, opens captions settings dialogcaptions off, selectedQuality Levels720p720pHD432p432p270p270p180p180pAutoA, selectedAudio Tracken (Main), selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window.This is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.Close Modal DialogThis is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:00Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate1xFullscreenWhy moving to a ‘sister suburb’ can save you money00:37center_img The beachfront lifestyle. The five-bedroom house sold to a local family. 5/3531-3533 Main Beach Pde, Main Beach, also sold in an eye-watering deal for $5.5 million. Another hefty sale was settled last week for a three-bedroom skyhome in Main Beach’s Sea building.The $5.5 million sale of 5/3531-3533 Main Beach Pde follows the record-breaking price which was paid for the building’s penthouse at No. 7, which sold for $8.25 million in February. The three-bedroom apartment at No. 5 featured an open-plan design, a home office, gourmet kitchen and a wrap around balcony with water views. MORE NEWS: Gold Coast home charms house hunters with its characterlast_img read more

World Cup Facts

first_img•The World Cup in 2018 will mark the first time Russia has ever hosted this event.•The 2018 World Cup will be Russia’s 11th World Cup appearance. Their highest ever finish was 4th place in 1966.•3.2 billion people (almost half of the world’s population) tuned in to watch the 2014 World Cup.•The World Cup has been played 20 times, Brazil holds the most titles with five. Italy and Germany are close behind with four each.•For the first time in the history of soccer, the 2002 World Cup was held in two different countries: South Korea and Japan.•The oldest goal scorer in the World Cup was Roger Milla, who was 42 in 1994 when he scored a goal for Cameroon against Russia.•It is rumored that India withdrew from the 1950 tournament as they were not allowed to play barefoot.•One of the venues for the 2018 World Cup, Fisht Stadium in Sochi, is the same stadium that hosted the opening and closing ceremonies at the 2014 Winter Games.•The first World Cup was played in 1930. Uruguay was both the tournament host and winner that year.•The World Cup trophy went missing for 7 days in 1966, when it was stolen just prior to the tournament.•The distance between the easternmost host city (Ekaterinburg) and the westernmost host city (Kaliningrad) at the 2018 World Cup is over 1500 miles. For comparison, that’s about the same distance as Moscow to London, England.•The average attendance per game at the 2014 World Cup was over 53,000 fans!•The highest scoring game in World Cup history was in 1954, when Austria defeated Switzerland 7-5.•The Italians have had the most number of draws in World Cup history with 21.•Of all countries that have appeared in the World Cup, Indonesia has played the least number of matches – just one in 1938.•Mexico has the most World Cup losses (25), though they do also have 14 wins and 14 draws.•While 32 teams will qualify for the 2018 tournament, the number will jump to 48 in 2026.•The most goals ever scored by one player in a World Cup match is an impressive five, by Oleg Salenko of Russia.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegramlast_img read more